1. Read Miranda and Bettolli (2006) Section 6.6 (the complete chapter) and consider the following items.
• Define Z, F, M, and μ.
• What is the relationship between Z, F, and M?
• Explain how the regression between Z and fishing effort can be used to estimate M. What are some problems with this method.
• Explain how the catch-curve methods of the last module could be used to estimate M.
• Explain how mark-recapture data can be used to estimate F (carefully explain what else must be know for this method to work).
• Explain what is meant by “meta-analysis to estimate M, F, or Z.”
2. Read Section 11.4 in Introductory Fisheries Analyses with R and consider the items below.
• Define Z, F, M, and μ.
• What is the relationship between Z, F, and M?
• Explain what is meant by “meta-analysis to estimate M, F, or Z.”
• What are the five methods to estimate M or F according to Miranda and Bettoli?
• Explain the meta-analytic method for estimating M proposed by Then et al. (2015).
• What R function is used to compute the meta-analytic estimates of M? What argument is used to compute the estimate of M proposed by Then et al. (2015)?
• Check out this online tool that provides meta-analytic estimates of M.
3. Read Allen and Hightower (2010) Mortality (most of the complete chapter) and consider the following items.
• Define A, S, Z, F, M, μ, m, and n (make sure to look at my post-it notes about the cf and cm variables).
• Explain how mortality rate changes with age from hatch through late adulthood.
• What kind of management actions can be enacted to control F?
• What is the difference between finite and instantaneous rates? Identify each of the following as a finite or instantaneous rate … A, S, Z, F, M, μ, m, and n.
• Describe what abundance (y-axis) versus time (x-axis) would look like if one followed a cohort (i.e., year-class) of fish through time.
• How is S computed from two measures of abundance separated by one year?
• How is A computed from S?
• Describe the difference between a discrete (Type I) and continuous (Type II) fishery.
• How is μ calculated in a continuous fishery?
• How is A computed from m and n in a continuous fishery? Why is the product of m and n included in this computation?
4. Read Miranda and Bettolli (2006) Sections 6.8-6.10 (the complete chapter) and consider the following items.
• Define Z, F, M, and μ.
• How is “additive mortality” defined?
• How is “compensatory mortality” defined?
• What does “additive mortality” look like in a plot of A versus μ?
• What does “compensatory” look like in a plot of A versus μ?
• How might the realization that compensatory mortality exists and an understand of how it exists influence management decisions?
• Define “accuracy” and “precision.”
• What are suggested sample sizes for catch curve analyses?
• While it is not clear in the reading, what is your best guess from the context of the reading what F0.1 is?
• What are management tools (i.e., regulations) commonly used to modify fishing mortality?
• What is the greatest difficulty in estimating mortality?