Male-Female Birth Ratio
Davis et al. (1998) observed a decline in the ratio of male to female births in several industrialized countries and explored whether that result was an indicator of larger health issues. The data below are the proportion of male births (PropMale) for the United States. Use these data to answer the questions further below. [Note: The data are wrapped onto multiple lines simply to save space. Carefully check that your data entry is correct.]
Year: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 PropMale: 0.5134 0.5126 0.5125 0.5128 0.5133 0.5132 0.5128 Year: 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 PropMale: 0.5128 0.5129 0.5127 0.5129 0.5126 0.5123 0.5127 Year: 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 PropMale: 0.5122 0.5126 0.5122 0.5120 0.5121 0.5120 0.5120
- Is there evidence for a significant statistical change in the proportion of male births in the U.S. over the study period?
- At what average annual rate (i.e., how much per year) did the proportion of male births change? [Be specific about the direction of change.]
- Explain why the p-value for the slope is so small even though the value of the estimated slope is such a small number [i.e., how is it possible that such a small value for the slope can be considered to be different from zero?].
Climate scientists often need to understand the relationship between different climate variables and particular locations. One area of interest for specific models is an estimate of the relationship (if any) between average monthly preciptation and average monthly temperature (such that preciptation may be predicted from temperature). Average monthly high and low temperatures and preciptation for Ashland, WI can be found on this Wikipedia page). Load the average high (be careful, NOT the record high) and average preciptation from this page into R and use it to answer the questions below. [Note: Please use metric units for both variables]
- Is there a significant relationship between average monthly precipitation and average monthly high temperature for Ashland, WI? If so, specifically describe that relationship (with appropriate interval)?
- Interpret the value of the intercept (with appropriate interval) from your regression model and comment on whether is is proper to interpret this value.
- Predict (with appropriate interval) the mean average monthly precipitation if the average monthly high temperature is 10oC.
- Predict (with appropriate interval) the average monthly precipitation if the average monthly high temperature is 10oC.